Entradas con la etiqueta ‘Relación Salud – Trabajo’
PhD in Psychology. Professor and Vice Provost, University of California, Berkeley.
In recent years, “burnout” has become a popular way to describe the personal agony of job stress. The evocative imagery of a flame being reduced to ashes seems to resonate with people’s own experience of a psychological erosion over time. The initial “fire” of enthusiasm, dedication, and commitment to success has “burned out,” leaving behind the smoldering embers of exhaustion, cynicism, and ineffectiveness. The literary model for this phenomenon, as portrayed in A Burnt-out Case (1961), is the spiritually tormented and disillusioned architect who quits his job and withdraws into the African jungle. But much research over the past 25 years has established that this phenomenon is not merely a fictional one, and that it is not reserved for rare cases. Rather, burnout is a fairly common and widespread job experience, which serves as an indicator of a major disruption in people’s relationship with their work.
Navarro Estrella Manuel
Duque Lopez María Ximena
Trejo Perez Juan Antonio
OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old. Mothers were divided into two groups, based on breast-feeding duration: those who breast-fed for less than 3 months and those who did so for three months or more. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding.
RESULTS: One-hundred and twelve mothers (42.3%) abandoned breast-feeding early. Risk factors were: poor maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, odds ratio (OR) 5.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-20.67; mothers with no previous breast-feeding experience OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66-5.36; mothers planning to breast-feed their babies for less than 3 months (OR 16.24, 95% CI 5.37-49.12); and mothers with no access to breast-feeding facilities at work (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.12-3.56).
CONCLUSIONS: The main factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding were the maternal ones. The only work-related factor associated with short duration of breast-feeding was the absence of breast-feeding facilities. It is probable that maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, previous breast-feeding experience, and the availability of facilities at work for breast-feeding affect the maternal decisions on breast-feeding duration.
Comportamientos de riesgo de ITS/SIDA en adolescentes trabajadores de hoteles de Puerto Vallarta y su asociación con el ambiente laboral
Bettylu Rasmussen Cruz
Alfredo Hidalgo San Martín
Noé Alfaro Alfaro
MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, comparativo, en una población de 288 adolescentes trabajadores durante 1998 en 38 hoteles de Puerto Vallarta. Variables: condición laboral, situación ambiental, comportamiento de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, características sociodemográficas. Estadísticas descriptivas, asociativas y predictivas: t test, RM y regresión logística.
RESULTADOS: Edad promedio 17.7 años; 71.5% hombres; activos sexualmente 53%; con uno o más comportamientos de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, (93.6%): nunca o raramente usa condón (77.3.1%); beber antes de relaciones sexuales (41%); promiscuidad (29.9%), y relaciones anales (9.2%). Factores asociados: percibir el ambiente estimulante para relaciones sexuales (RM 2.36); beber antes de coito: compañeros (RM 2.52) y huéspedes (RM 2.60); norma de poder invitar huéspedes al cuarto (RM 4.46); Variables confusoras: género masculino (RM 3.14), casados o en unión libre (RM 21.19) y 18-19 años (RM 3.11).
CONCLUSIONES: Hay alta frecuencia de comportamiento de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, asociados con algunos factores ambientales.
Construct validity, reliability, and cutoff point of the Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test in Mexican workers
Barrientos Gutiérrez Tonatiuh
Martínez Alcantara Susana
Méndez Ramirez Ignacio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and the internal reliability of the Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test (SSFT), as well as to establish its best cutoff point.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SSFT was developed in Japan to measure fatigue in a population of workers; the test includes 30 items in three spheres. Construct validity was explored through differences among groups, using a population of 1399 workers from eight industries studied in Mexico City in 1999. We used the Theorell and Karasek’s control-demand model as our nomological network, from which we derived two work hypotheses. Workers were divided into nine groups according to their level of control-demand; fatigue differences were assessed using analysis of covariance. The internal reliability level was tested with Cronbach’s alpha. The cutoff point was obtained by means of the expected linear relation between the labor demands and fatigue.
RESULTS: The distribution of SSFT values was similar to the expected values, increasing proportionally with increasing demands or with decreasing control. The differences between groups were statistically significant. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89, while the value per sphere was always above 0.70. The cut-off points most closely correlated were 6 and 7 affirmative answers.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed score obtained in the distinct groups was as expected, in agreement with the study hypotheses. The internal reliability of the test was adequate. The proposed cutoff point for the general population was seven affirmative responses.
Vladislavovna Doubova Svetlana
Pérez Cuevas Ricardo
Reyes Morales Hortensia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-rated health (SRH) in climacteric women and to identify the factors associated with negative SRH.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from 9 248 women aged 40 to 59 years was analyzed. SRH was the dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, history of reproductive and chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in screening and health education programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling.
RESULTS: Forty-two percent of women reported positive SRH and 58% reported negative SRH. Factors associated with negative SRH were: low literacy level (OR 1.78, CI95% 1.62-1.95), unemployment (OR 1.20, CI95% 1.09-1.33), menopause (OR 1.22, CI95% 1.11-1.33), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.88, CI95% 1.65-2.13) hypertension (OR 2.01, CI95% 1.82-2.22), irregular physical exercise (OR 1.30, CI95% 1.12-1.50), sedentarism (OR 1.395, CI95% 1.23-1.57), lack of information about climacteric (OR 1.17, CI95% 1.07-1.28) and lack of screening for chronic diseases (OR 0.82, CI95% 0.75-0.89).
CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with negative SRH such as lack of information and physical activity should be strengthened.
Olivia López Arellano
Susana Martínez Alcántara
Cuauhtémoc Moreno Alba
En general la salud de los trabajadores ha sido considerada como objeto de estudio de técnicos sanitarios y especialistas en la materia, abordando la problemática de salud generada por el trabajo en términos de eliminación de riesgo específicos, o bien calificando exclusivamente a las enfermedades tipificadas en la legislación laboral.
Los propósitos de este estudio están enfocados a profundizar el conocimiento de la relación salud-trabajo, desde una perspectiva médico-social, en la Sociedad Cooperativa Pascual. Asimismo, poner en evidencia -en una situación concreta- que la participación de los trabajadores en el proceso investigativo es fundamental en la identificación de las condiciones laborales nocivas.
Se afirma que los trabajadores como participantes directos en el proceso laboral conocen las condiciones en que éste se desarrolla y los factores de riesgo presentes en el ambiente de trabajo.
La instrumentación del proceso de investigación se basó en el llamado Modelo Operario que retoma la experiencia obrera, la participación activa de los trabajadores y la apropiación de su problemática de salud, con el objeto de combatir la nocividad del medio laboral.
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